the science

One critical receptor and its control over brain signals and bodily functions

Dysregulated serotonin signals are implicated in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, dysautonomia, autoimmunity, chronic kidney disease, chronic pain, among other ACDs.

These signals are driven by upregulated CRFR2, which is reversible using agonist-mediated receptor endocytosis.

The Science What we observed:
CRFR2 upregulation disrupts serotonin signals

The master controller Serotonin

The serotonin system is organized into dedicated circuits that control numerous bodily functions (e.g. movement, memory, thermoregulation, immunity, mood, etc). Within these circuits, serotonin orchestrates other neurotransmitters to create integrated signals.

The agent of change Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)

CRF has a biphasic relationship with serotonin: low-level CRF acts via the CRFR1 receptor to decrease local serotonin; high-level CRF acts via upregulated CRFR2 to increase local serotonin.

To adjust a function, CRF modulates serotonin in the relevant dedicated circuit. For instance, if the body is too hot, CRF increases serotonin in the thermoregulatory circuit, to invoke a cooling response. When temperature normalizes, serotonin, CRFR1 and CRFR2 return to baseline.

The point of failure CRFR2

Excessive serotonin in a dedicated circuit prevents the return to baseline, leaving CRFR2 permanently upregulated.

This permits low-level CRF to increase serotonin, so dysregulating the signal and causing a specific symptom, related to the function of the circuit. For instance, CRFR2 upregulation in the thermoregulatory circuit lowers body temperature (the symptom).

“This new and innovative perspective ties individual symptoms to specific neurons.”
- Peer Reviewer
the cure CRFR2 downregulation

Receptors naturally up/downregulate. Our patented treatment mimics this natural process (known as agonist-mediated receptor endocytosis). It involves a single infusion of drug (CT38) that downregulates CRFR2 and restores normal serotonin signals.

The Pathology CRFR2-serotonin dysregulation explains all of
the enigmatic findings of ACDs

ACD PathologyFit with CRFR2-serotonin dysregulation
Different symptoms across various ACDsCRFR2 upregulation in a particular circuit
Different symptoms within any given ACDDepends on the circuits in which CRFR2 is upregulated
Stress-related symptom flaringStress triggers the CRF system
Symptoms worsening over timeUpregulated circuits operating at higher serotonin levels are more prone to serotonin excess and further CRF2 upregulation
The observed influence of early and
cumulative life stress on ACD incidence
Stress triggers the CRF system
The sex-bias evident in ACDsCRF system is sex-biased, via puberty-emergent changes
Shared symptoms across ACDsSame dysregulating mechanism
No other ACD thesis being studied today can explain these well established facts.